Different farming techniques are used to increase production, improve the quality of the product, and facilitate the harvest of the crop. The main production techniques used are
Long lines: Mussels are place on ropes that remain suspended in the water from a long line composed of buoys.
These long lines can be semi-submerged, submerged or buoyant depending on the farming environment. This technique is largely used in New Zeeland, Ireland and Chile.
Bateas “mussel rafts”: The mussel raft used in Spain is also known as bateas, these rafts are composed of a solid structure from which the mussels hang in the water. This technique is predominantly used in Spain.
Bouchot “mussel poles”: Ropes carrying young mussels are placed on vertical poles in the intertidal area. As the mussels grow they move onto the pole where they will grow until they reach their commercial size. This farming technique is predominately used in France.
Bottom mussels: large flat boats equipped with 2 to 4 dredges harvest young mussels which then are relayed in sheltered areas for further growth until they reach commercial size. This technique is predominantly used in the Netherlands, Ireland and the UK.
Wild fisheries: Commercial size mussels are directly harvested from wild beds. Fishery quotas and regulations are often used to preserve the resource. This fishery can be found for example in Denmark and in the French Barfleur region.